Kidneys consist of two bean-shaped organs located in upper abdominal part. The function of the kidney is to filter blood and to remove excess fluid and waste. While removing waste kidney makes urine but sometimes other materials and urine stick together to make small pebbles known as kidney stones. These kidney stones can cause severe pain. How long does it take to pass a kidney stone? It varies from their type and patient. Usually kidney stone pass within few weeks but it can take up to 6 months but it depends on it’s not compulsory for every patient.
Types of Kidney Stones:
There are four major types of kidney stones:
- Uric Acid Stones: They are produced by waste products of urine and when urine is very acidic.
- Calcium Stones: The most common type of kidney stones is calcium stones which are usually made calcium oxalate or phosphate.
- Struvite: They are larger in size and caused by the kidney infection or urinary infection.
- Cystine: They are rare and more likely to be caused by genetic disorder.
Causes of Kidney Stones:
There’s no specific cause of kidney stones but many factors can cause kidney stones.
- Lack of water or dehydration can cause kidney stones.
- Some conditions such as urinary infection (acidity), Dent’s disease, Crohn’s disease, ammonia etc can also cause kidney stones.
- Calcium antacids and vitamin D can also increase the risk of kidney stones.
Symptoms of Kidney Stones:
Until kidney stones move down to ureters they have no symptoms normally. But then kidney stones can cause severe pain which is known as renal colic. Other symptoms include:
- Urination pain or blood in urine.
- Vomiting and Nausea (sickness).
- Chills and Fever.
- Bad smelling and cloudy urine.
- More urination than the normal or small amount of urination.
Treatments of Kidney Stone:
Treatment is based on what kind of stones you are having smaller ones or larger ones.
Treatment for Small Kidney Stones:
- Medication: Your doctor may give you medication known as an alpha-blocker which relaxes your muscle and allow the stone to pass easily. Pain killers are also prescribed. If there are some serious issues you may also be admitted to hospital.
- Drinking Water: Drink a lot of water about 2 liters a day it will help you flush out urinary system. But do it on the advice of your doctor because it can make your urine very clear.
Treatment for Large Kidney Stones:
Some stones are larger in size that can’t be passed easily and can cause bleeding, kidney damage or other infections they are treated by some other methods which includes:
- Use of Shock Waves: The most common way of treating stones which can’t be passed easily is ESWL (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy). Shock waves or Strong vibrations are used to break kidney stones so it can be passed by urine. This method can take up to one hour and can cause blood in urine or pain, so painkillers are used before using this form of treatment.
- Surgery: Ureteroscopy is also used to remove stones from kidney or ureter. A Ureteroscope similar to the telescope is used to locate stone in your kidney. The surgeon sometimes tries to remove that stone gently otherwise waves are used to break it at that location. Sometimes Parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid glands which result in the formation of stones. The formation of such stones can be controlled by removing glands.
- PCNL (Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy): It’s a procedure used when ESWL become unsuccessful. It involves telescope and some instruments inserted in your back by a small incision. Pneumatic energy is used to break stone or it is pulled out.
- Kidney Stones can be easily prevented by drinking up to 12 glass or more than 2-liter water.
- Don’t eat a lot of oxalate-rich foods it can also increase the risk of calcium stones and also reduce usage of salt.