Vitamins are nutrients (organic compounds ) which are important for our body to play various roles and our body can not produce them by itself so we have to take them from other sources.The main question for everyone is what vitamins should I take to keep the body fit. There are basically two types of vitamins water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.
Water Soluble Vitamins :
Water Soluble Vitamins are those which are excreted in urine and our body cannot store the excess amount of these vitamins. If we take these vitamins in the excess amount they are not toxic because they get excreted from the body. Following are Water Soluble Vitamins:
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) :
Thiamine (Vitamin B1) perform as a co-enzyme in several metabolic reactions. Its deficiency produces a condition called beriberi (inflammation of the nerves and heart failure). It is synthesized by plants, yeast, and bacteria. Whole white bread is a good source. Its requirement increases in anoxia-shock, hemorrhage, serious illnesses and injury.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) :
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) plays an important role in development and function of the skin, the lining of the digestive tract and preventing from cervical cancer, and migraine headaches. Its deficiency can cause red tongue , inflammation of the mouth and sore throat Its sources are milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables.
Niacin (Vitamin B3) :
Niacin (vitamin B3) plays an important role in electron transformation. Its deficiency causes a disease called pellagra (characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, and mental disturbance). Its sources are meat, fish, legumes, nuts, coffee and tea.
Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) :
Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5) is important for the production of red-blood cells, production of hormones and wound healing.Its deficiency can cause vomiting, fatigue, insomnia, feet burn and respiratory infections. Its sources are corn, sunflower seeds, dried tomatoes, mushrooms, chicken liver and yogurt.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) :
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is the precursor of biological active co -enzyme particularly in amino acid metabolism.Its deficiency can cause a great effect on nerves, skin, membranes, and circulatory system. Its sources are yeast, rice, polishing, cereals grains and egg yolk.
Biotin (Vitamin B7) :
Biotin (Vitamin B7) plays an important role in healthy metabolic, nerve, digestive and cardiovascular functions. Its deficiency can cause hair loss, dry scaly skin. Its sources are potatoes, milk, yogurt, peanuts, almonds, eggs.
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) :
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9) is essential for the biosynthesis of several compounds. Its deficiencies are common in the United States mostly in pregnant women and alcoholics. Its deficiency also leads to microcytic anemia (MCV <80).Its source is leafy, dark green vegetables.
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) :
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is required in humans got essential enzymatic reactions. Its deficiency causes unusual accumulation of fatty acids and becomes incorporated into cell membranes including those of central nerves system and pernicious anemia. This may account for some of the neurologic manifestations. Its sources are liver, red meat, fish, eggs, dairy products and fortified cereals.
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) :
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) performs antioxidant reactions. It is required for maintenance of normal connective tissues as well as for wound healing. Its deficiency results in scurvy, a disease characterized by site and spongy gums. Consumption of diets rich in these compounds associated with decreased incidence of diseases such as coronary heart diseases certain cancer. Its sources are oranges, lemons.
Fat (LIPID) Soluble Vitamins :
They are released, absorbed, and transported (chylomicrons) with dietary fat. They are not excreted and significant quantities are stored in liver and adipose tissues so they may reach high toxic levels. Therefore there must be taken in small quantities otherwise, they can be toxic. Following are Fat Soluble Vitamins:
Retinol (Vitamin A) :
Retinol (Vitamin A) plays an important role in the maintenance of reproduction, vision, growth, and gene expressions. Its deficiency leads to infertility, night blindness, retardation of growth xerophthalmia. Its excesses can increase the incidence of fractures. Its sources are liver oil, milk, cheese, egg yolk, vegetables, and fruits such as mangoes papayas.
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) :
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) plays an important role in calcium uptake and gene expression. Its deficiency leads to rickets (children) and osteomalacia (adults). Its sources are sunlight, fish liver oil bad egg yolk.
Phylloquinone (Vitamin K) :
Phylloquinone (Vitamin K) is important role for blood coagulation, calcium binding proteins, and oxidative Phosphorylation. Its deficiency occurs in Newborn and rare in adults. Its sources are green leafy vegetables such as alfalfa, spinach, cabbage.
Tocopherol (Vitamin E) :
Tocopherol (Vitamin E) is the antioxidant which helps in removal of free radicals and plays role in the synthesis of nucleic acid. Its deficiency leads to muscular dystrophy and hemolytic anemia. Its sources are corn oil, sunflower oil, margarine, and yeast.